• human blood taken from a standard blood donation and has not yet been separated into its various components (red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets, plasma).
  • It maybe used in transfusions to restore blood volume after traumatic blood loss or in treatment of anaemic conditions


  • A precipitate that is obtained through controlled thawing of Fresh frozen plasm
  • A source of concentrated factors such as VIII used for treating Haemophilia (Other factors obtained: von Willebrand factor, fibrinogen, Factor XIII)


  • Irregular disc-shaped components of blood that assist in blood clotting. Their role is to help stop bleeding when there is an injury to the body and this, they accomplish by forming a blood clot that seals the wound


  • A concentrated preparation of red blood cells obtained from Whole blood by removal of plasma. They give the red colour to the blood.
  • Red blood cells help to circulate oxygen to the entire human body and are indicated for patients with increasing oxygen demands.


  • the yellowish/straw-coloured liquid portion of whole blood that has been separated from whole blood and frozen within 6-8 hours of collection
  • It contains normal levels of coagulation proteins and is indicated for patients with hypovolemia (low blood volume) and/or coagulation factor deficiency.
  • Has a shelf life of up to 12 months when stored at or below – 20ºC




 It is a process of collecting/withdrawing blood from a patient as part of disease management. The main goal of therapeutic bleeding is to reduce levels of specific elements in blood that are causing/can cause illness in the patient.  An example is withdrawing blood from a patient with hemochromatosis, the goal is to reduce iron overload.


  • Any one of classes into which individuals or their blood can be separated on the basis of presence or absence of specific antigens in the blood (on the surface of red blood cells)
  • Blood groups are inherited from parents. They normally do not change for the rest of one’s life.
  • The main blood groups are defined by the ABO and Rhesus system: blood group A – has A antigens on the red blood cells; blood group B – has B antigens on the red blood cells; blood group AB – has both A and B antigens on the red blood cells; blood group O – has none of the A or B antigens on the red blood cells
  • Rhesus – defined by the presence or absence of the Rhesus factor on the red blood cells (presence : +; absence: -)
    A+ : blood group A Rhesus positive A – : blood group A Rhesus negative
    B+ : blood group B Rhesus positive B – : blood group B Rhesus negative
    AB+ : blood group AB Rhesus positive AB -: blood group AB Rhesus negative
    O+ : blood group O Rhesus positive O – : blood group O Rhesus negative



  • the testing done to check if a donated unit(s) of blood will match that of an intended blood transfusion recipient.
  • this is done to prevent any adverse reactions during or after the transfusion 


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