Glossary of Terms

Allogeneic donation - Blood donation from one individual to another of different genetic make-up within the same species.

Apheresis - A method of collection where whole blood is removed from a donor or patient and separated into components; one or more of the components are retained,and the remainder is returned to the donor/patient during the same procedure.

Audit Trail - Record-keeping system that re-creates every step in the manufacturing processes.

Audit - Systematic investigation to determine whether policies and procedures are being performed and supported properly.

Autologous Donation - Blood donated by a donor-patient for use on him/herself.

Hospital Blood Bank - Hospital laboratory unit in charge of ordering, storage and performing compatibility testing of blood and blood products on behalf of the hospital.

Blood Product - Any therapeutic product derived from blood or plasma.

Blood Warmer - Medical equipment that pre-warms donor blood to 37oC before transfusion.

Change Control - System to plan and implement changes in procedures, equipment, policies, and methods to increase effectiveness and/or prevent problems.

Clinically significant antibody - An antibody obtained from a donor (allogenic antibody) or recipient (autologous antibody) that is capable of producing an adverse reaction to transfused blood or blood product in the recipient. .

Closed system - An airtight and sterile system in which the blood is not exposed to air or outside elements during collection and processing, including separation of components (e.g. platelets) if required prior to transfusion.

Compatibility testing - All steps in the identification and testing of a potential transfusion recipient and donor blood before transfusion in an attempt to provide a blood product that survives in vivo and provides its therapeutic effect in the recipient.

Cross-match - Procedure that combines the donor’s RBCs and patient’s serum to determine the serologic compatibility between donor and patient.

Blood Donor - A person whose blood is collected for possible allogeneic transfusion to another person.

Donor-Recipient - A person whose own blood is collected for possible transfusion to her/himself (autologous transfusion).

External Quality Assessment Scheme (EQAS) - A scheme whereby samples are received from an outside agency for assessment and the results returned to the outside agency for evaluation. To be effective, the samples should be assessed in precisely the same way as routine samples.

Fresh Frozen Plasma - Plasma separated from whole blood by centrifugation or apheresis and frozen within 6 hours of collection. It contains all of the plasma coagulation factors and labile factors V and VIII.

Look back system - Process of identifying and notifying persons who have received blood transfusions from donors who are subsequently found to have infections with HCV, HIV, HBV, Syphilis or other TTI and notifying them as appropriate.

Plasmapheresis - The method used to remove plasma from the blood by separating and retaining the plasma whilst returning the red blood cells suspended in saline or other solution back into the donor’s circulation system.

Proficiency Testing (PT) - Surveys performed to ensure that a laboratory’s test methods and equipment are working as expected.

Quality Assurance (QA) - This is programme of procedures, controls, audits and corrective actions implemented to provide adequate confidence that a procedure, structure, component or system will function as expected and deliver results that meet or exceed predefined specifications.

Quality Control (QC) - Testing to determine the accuracy and precision of the equipment, products, reagents and procedures.

Transfusion reaction - Adverse reaction of a patient (recipient) to infused blood or blood products.

Recipient - A person who receives blood or blood components for therapeutic purposes.

Unit of blood - Sterile plastic bag in which a fixed volume of blood is collected in a suitable amount of anticoagulant. (The collections system should be a closed system, usually consisting of a sterile hypodermic needle connected by tubing to a collection bag that has one or more sterile ports for inserting a sterile administration set).

Weak D - Weak form of the D antigen that requires IAT for its detection.